Organisé par : Elena Anagnostopoulou (univ. Crete)
This course investigates participles focusing on the morpho-syntax and interpretation of adjectival participles and their relationship to verbal passives. According to Lexicalist approaches, there is a basic dichotomy between adjectival and verbal ‘passives’. Adjectival participles are taken to be passive derived from verbal passive participles in the Lexicon via a rule of Adjectival Passive Formation (Borer 1984, Levin and Rappaport 1986). This picture needs to be revised. As argued by Kratzer (1994), adjectival participles in German are not passive, as they do not contain an implicit agent. This correlates with stativity: adjectival passives are stative, while verbal passives are eventive. A number of further distinctions have been drawn in the literature (Kratzer 1994, Anagnostopoulou 2003, Embick 2004). Adjectival participles either introduce states resulting from prior events or they lack event implications. Moreover, participles with event implications introduce two different types of states, target and resultant states (Kratzer 2000). Resultant state participles express the Perfect of Result, a meaning also conveyed by the Present Perfect in one of its uses (the other uses of the Present Perfect in English are the universal, the experiential and the perfect of recent past). As shown by a crosslinguistic investigation of Greek, English and German participles, a number of syntactic and morphological properties are associated with the different types of participles suggesting that the following distinctions are syntactically encoded: (i) eventive vs. stative semantics, (ii) inclusion vs. exclusion of an implicit external argument, (iii) event implications or not, (iv) target or resultant state participles. Following Marantz (2001), Alexiadou & al. (2006) and others, it will be proposed that agentivity and event implications are located in functional heads. A layer Asp (stativizer) is present in the structure of all types of adjectival participles. Where they differ is the height of attachment of Asp (whether it attaches on the root or on different functional heads). Finally, adjectival participles will be compared to change of state verbs and resultatives (all involve a Cause-State component).
Prerequisites: Some background in syntax
Elena Anagnostopoulou (univ. Crete)