Organisé par : Emmanuel Chemla (ENS)
I will introduce two kinds of pragmatic inferences: scalar implicatures and presuppositions. Several aspects of these phenomena have been widely discussed in the formal linguistic literature. The aim of this lecture is to show that issues from the most formal literature call for simple experimental investigations.
Little importance will be given to formal details. The key concepts will be primarily introduced via empirical illustrations and the discussion will focus on recent experimental results from Chemla, 2007. The goal of this study was a systematic investigation of the projection properties of several types of inferences in quantified sentences (e.g., No student knows that he failed, Less than 3 students read all the books) with main emphasis on presupposition.
Prerequisites: Some knowledge of formal pragmatics may help more deeply understand the scope of the issues raised in the lecture, but is not at all necessary.
Some references on presupposition:
Geurts, B. (1999). Presupposition and Pronouns. Elsevier.
Heim, I. (1983). On the Projection Problem for Presuppositions. In D. Flickinger et al. (eds), Proceedings of the Second West Coast Conference on Formal Linguistics, 114-125. Reprinted in Davis, S. (ed): 1991, Pragmatics: A Reader, Oxford University Press.
Kadmon, N. (2001). Formal Pragmatics. Blackwell.
See in particular chapter X for a technical approach of the main controversy under discussion.
The experimental study to be discussed:
Chemla, E. (2007). Presuppositions of Quantified Sentences: Experimental Data. Ms. ENS.
Emmanuel Chemla (ENS)
Laboratoire de Sciences Cognitives et Psycholinguistique